Article 10. Provisions conferring availability

A name or nomenclatural act becomes available only under the following conditions.

10.1. General conditions to be met

A name or nomenclatural act is available, and takes authorship and date, only when it has satisfied the provisions of this Article and, when relevant, of Articles 11 to 20 (for date and author see Articles 21 and 50). A name may be ruled to be available by the Commission [Arts. 78-81] if these conditions are not fully met.

10.1.1. If publication of the data relating to a new nominal taxon or a nomenclatural act is interrupted and continued at a later date, the name or act becomes available only when the requirements of the relevant Articles have been met.

Recommendation 10A. Responsibility of editors and publishers. An editor should ensure that the whole of the description and illustrations relating to a new nominal taxon, and particularly any nomenclatural acts or data necessary to confer availability on its name, are published in the same work and on the same day.

10.2. Availability of infrasubspecific names

An infrasubspecific name is not available [Art. 45.5] from its original publication, unless it was published before 1961 for a "variety" or "form" and is deemed to be available under Art. If an author uses a name, previously published at infrasubspecific rank, in a way which makes it available for a species or subspecies, that author thereby establishes it as a new name and it takes his or her authorship [Art. 45.5.1] (see also Articles 23.3.4 and 50.3.1).

10.3. Availability of names proposed for collective groups and ichnotaxa

A name proposed for a collective group is treated as a genus-group name [Art. 42.2.1]; a name proposed for an ichnotaxon is a family-group name, or genus-group name, or species-group name, according to the way in which it is first established (for names established for ichnotaxa for use at genus-group level, see Article 42.2.1).

10.4. Availability of names for divisions of genera

A uninominal name proposed for a genus-group division of a genus, even if proposed for a secondary (or further) subdivision, is deemed to be a subgeneric name even if the division is denoted by a term such as "section" or "division"; but a name used for an aggregate of species which is denoted by a term such as "superspecies" is not deemed to be a genus-group name [Art. 6.2].

10.5. Availability of names of taxa later but not at first classified as animals

The name (or names) of a taxon, including a taxon based on the work of an organism not at first classified as animal but later so classified, is available from its original publication provided that it satisfies the relevant provisions of this Chapter, provided that it is not excluded from the Code [Arts. 1.3, 3], and provided that it is a potentially valid name under another Code (the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature or the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria) relevant to the taxon.

10.6. Effect of invalidity upon availability

A name once available remains so irrespective of its invalidity as a junior synonym, a junior homonym, an unjustified emendation, an unnecessary substitute name, or a suppressed name, unless the Commission has ruled otherwise [Arts. 78.1, 78.2]. (Even if the taxon concerned is no longer classified as animal its name remains available [Art. 2.2]).

10.7. Availability of names not listed in a relevant adopted Part of the List of Available Names in Zoology

No unlisted name within the scope of an adopted Part of the List of Available Names in Zoology is available, despite any previous availability [Art. 79.4.3].

[amendment] Recommendation 10B. Registration of names encouraged. Authors are encouraged to include registration numbers from the Official Register of Zoological Nomenclature for new names and nomenclatural acts introduced in their publications, and to register names and acts that have been previously published.